GIS Odyssey Journal <p><em><strong>GIS Odyssey Journal</strong></em> <strong>ISSN 2720-2682</strong> (online), is an interdisciplinary, international, <strong>peer-reviewed and open access journal</strong>, published in the electronic version.</p> <p>Publication in the journal is <strong>free of charge</strong>.</p> <p>Articles are published in <strong>English only</strong>.</p> <p>It provides an advanced forum for geographic information science: Cartography, Geoinformatics Systems – Information Technology, Geoinformation and Law, Cultural and Natural Heritage Management, Globalization and Social-Economic Problems, The State and Local Level Administration &amp; Management, Ecology, Sea and Water Management, Environmental and Earth Resources Management, Spatial Information Systems in Practice, The New GIS Solutions, Agriculture and Forestry, The Integrated Europe and World – Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe, Emergency Management – Post-War and Post-Disaster Reconstruction Projects, Smart city.</p> <p>It is published since 2021 year as semi-annual by the SILGIS Association (Poland) and Croatian-Polish Scientific Network (CPSN). Previously since 2016 till 2020 published as Conference proceedings (GIS Odyssey) by GIS Forum (Croatia). From 1994 till 2015 achievements of international GIS conferences based on Croatian-Polish cooperation were published in the form of books. Publications 1994-2020 are presented on the website</p> SILGIS Association, Będzińska Street 39/401, 41-200 Sosnowiec; Poland - Croatian-Polish Scientific Network en-US GIS Odyssey Journal 2720-2682 <p>This is an open access publication, which can be used, distributed and reproduced in any medium according to the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License.</p> IMPROVEMENT OF PORT INFRASTRUCTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS USING EU FUNDS – THE ISLAND OF BRAČ, THE PORT OF BOL <p>Bol is located on the island of Brač, therefore connecting Bol with the mainland or with the national road network is extremely important both for tourism and for the economy as a whole. Port Bol belongs to the ports of county significance and is managed by the Port Authority of Split-Dalmatia. In the town of Bol on Brač, there is a port open to public passenger traffic that connects the island of Brač with the mainland and the ports of the other islands. The existing port is characterized by limited capacity, dilapidation, and inadequate construction considering the demand of maritime traffic in the port. This paper will present the expansion of the port of Bol open to public traffic in order to create a high-quality harbour pier for public traffic, which would relieve the traffic burden of the city of Bol and the municipality of Bol and provide the local population with quality public transportation, which is currently not available, with as little as possible impact on the environment. The purpose of the project is not to make money, but to create content that will improve the quality of life of the local population and keep them in Bol in order to reduce the tendency of the "island dying". The local population is the main driver of the city's development and life. In order to improve the demographic picture, it is necessary to provide the local population with quality primary conditions for life and progress.</p> Srećko Favro Dora Mužinić Copyright (c) 2023 Dora Mužinić, Srećko Favro 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 5 15 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE ACCESS TO SPATIAL DATA AND SERVICES DUE TO INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. POLISH PERSPECTIVE <p>The Inspire Directive introduces a conceptual framework related to spatial data infrastructure, unifying the issues related to the access to spatial data within the European Union. The Directive was implemented into Polish law in the Act of 4 March 2010 on spatial information infrastructure. Both the Directive and the Act provide for the possibility of introducing limitations to access to spatial data and services in connection if access would adversely affect, among others, intellectual property rights. The carried out study shows that most poviats subject to the study have not acquired the required scope of intellectual property which may potentially result in the access limitations.</p> Agnieszka Besiekierska Copyright (c) 2023 Agnieszka Besiekierska 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 17 24 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.17 EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE SPACE <p>The terms AI and AI systems are ambiguous but attempts are being made to agree on their definitions. International organizations and national public authorities are constructing legal acts and policy documents oriented toward maximizing benefits and reducing risks of the AI development and use. The EU draft AI Act prohibits the use of certain AI systems in the publicly accessible space. Therefore, it is important to clarify the definition of this category of the space and the scope of prohibited practices. The general principles applicable to all artificial intelligence systems introduced by the European Parliament in 2023 will affect the development and use of GIS in the publicly accessible space under the EU jurisdiction and their indirect impact may be even broader.</p> Grażyna Szpor Copyright (c) 2023 Grażyna Szpor 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 25 36 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.25 CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR CLI SPOOFING <p>Spoofing involves masking the identity of a person, group or organisation, by manipulating addresses, identifiers or other data used to identify a user or system. This can range from falsifying IP addresses, phone numbers and email addresses to generating persuasive, fake signals capable of disrupting the reception of legitimate GPS signals by receivers. The article aims to analyse the criminal liability of spoofing attacks, with a focus on CLI spoofing. Additionally, the article will identify the most common methods used by perpetrators of spoofing attacks. This will be followed by an examination of the statutory measures implemented in Poland to mitigate the effects of spoofing attacks, which are considered as reasons for criminal responsibility. The article confirms the research hypothesis that effective reduction of CLI spoofing requires not only legislation that introduces criminal liability for spoofing, but also appropriate legal regulations that impose certain obligations on telecommunications entrepreneurs, efficient international cooperation, and comprehensive education in the fields of cybersecurity and cyber hygiene.</p> Agnieszka Gryszczyńska Copyright (c) 2023 Agnieszka Gryszczyńska 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 37 49 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.37 THE USE OF THE GIS SYSTEM IN OPTIMIZING THE COSTS OF INSPECTING TECHNICAL DEVICES <p>Enterprises using cranes, HDS platforms, other handling equipment, or pressure equipment in their activities are subject to registration with the Office of Technical Inspection (UDT), which is obliged to conduct inspection activities on them. Inspections of technical devices are aimed at checking their technical condition. Approximately 1.3 million technical devices are currently subject to UDT supervision in Poland. Annually, UDT inspectors carry out over 1 million tests of technical devices, and the activities carried out by UDT translate into a constant reduction in the accident rate. All this takes place in conditions that require continuous work planning and scheduling. This article aims to present and discuss the use of open-source solutions for planning the work of teams carrying out inspection activities, along with the concept of their use.</p> Marzenna Miłek Jerzy Stanik Maciej Kiedrowicz Jarosław Napiórkowski Copyright (c) 2023 Marzenna Miłek, Maciej Kiedrowicz, Jarosław Napiórkowski, Jerzy Stanik 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 51 63 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.51 USE OF THE SPATIAL DATA IN THE CREATION OF VIDEO GAMES ENVIRONMENT <p>Article focuses on the problem of copyright protection of spatial data used to create and perform multimedia works. Multimedia are hybrid works because they are constructed from two main layers (audiovisual work and computer program) but should be treated as one product according to the copyright. Thus spatial data included inside such a works have to be protected within them as a one product. Video games were chosen as an example of multimedia (hybrid) works. First chapter shows crucial role of (mostly) artificial spatial data in the creation and usage of video games. Spatial data describe game environment’s location of every (audio)visual object but are encoded in, and used by computer program to perform video game properly. As such spatial data are one of the reason for treating video game as unified product, consisting amalgamation of its elements. Because spatial data are binder of the video game both layers, they should not be subject of separated copyright protection. Thus to protect spatial data included in &nbsp;video game, the video game itself needs to be protected properly. However, because video games are hybrid works, they legal nature is not determined yet. There is also no legal definition or specific copyright regulation for video games. Because of this legal loophole, different doctrinal concepts together with European Court of Justice judgements, on the video game’s copyright protection, were analyzed. This was analyzed in chapter two. Conclusions consist statement that lack of video games legal nature’s determination, and caused by this lack of specific copyright protection of video games may lead to not enough copyright protection of the video game as a whole product as well as spatial data included inside. Specific regulation instead of casuistic judgements is needed, for ensure the video games market grows.</p> Konrad Radomiński Copyright (c) 2023 Konrad Radomiński 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 65 87 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.65 NEW SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT RULES IN POLAND <p>Spatial development involves planning, organizing, and managing physical spaces in cities, regions, or countries, aiming to optimize efficiency, sustainability, and quality of life through land arrangement, resource allocation, and infrastructure management. This study examines spatial management in Poland, guided by the 2003 law on spatial planning and development, exploring its hierarchical structure ensuring spatial order and policy implementation. Recent legislative amendments on July 2023, are scrutinized, impacting spatial planning by emphasizing public participation and introducing tools like the municipal general plan and Urban Register. The study delves into the evolving process of issuing WZ Decisions and integrating public consultations. It assesses amendments' effects on stakeholder involvement and legal framework changes in practice. Public participation principles are analyzed, detailing stakeholder roles, engagement nature, and legal mechanisms in spatial planning processes. Furthermore, the study investigates the introduction of the general municipal plan, zoning categorization, and the new WZ Decisions' compliance procedure. The creation of the Urban Register is discussed, highlighting its functionalities and intended role as a comprehensive spatial planning and development information source. In summary, this study offers a comprehensive analysis of recent legislative changes in Poland's spatial planning and development, focusing on practical implications and the evolving landscape of public participation and spatial governance within the country.</p> Małgorzata Ganczar Copyright (c) 2023 Małgorzata Ganczar 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 89 97 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.89 METHODS OF CONDUCTING SPACE TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW – HOW TO REMEDY POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF LAWS? <p>This paper analyses the concept of space tourism in terms of methods required to conduct such activities within the scope of international law. It highlights challenges that emerge for the international space law, especially regarding the suborbital flights. It’s not clear from the point of view of international law which legal regime might apply to such an endeavor. Unlike any other space flight, suborbital flights consist both of elements from international aviation law and international space law. This paper discusses hypothetical solutions to potential conflicts of law that may arise in connection to such activities. It also aims to provide clarity to ambiguities regarding international law in this area.</p> Adam Buczkowski Copyright (c) 2023 Adam Buczkowski 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 99 106 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.99 USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN REMOTE BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS <p>Work is currently underway to regulate the use of artificial intelligence. The article presents the ideas and principles of creating remote biometric identification systems using AI technologies. Risks to privacy and possible scenarios for the use of such systems are presented.</p> Kamil Czaplicki Copyright (c) 2023 Kamil Czaplicki 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 107 115 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.107 THE PANDEMIC DIMENSION OF NEW EDUCATION AND POST-PANDEMIC TRENDS: TECHNOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF EDUCATION? <p>The COVID-19 pandemic, which swept across the globe, has left an indelible mark on various aspects of human life. Schools and educational institutions worldwide have had to adapt rapidly to the challenges posed by the pandemic. As a result, “new education” became a necessity, predominantly characterized by utilizing technology as an integral part of the learning process. This article examines the pandemic’s impact on education, focusing on its transformation. It also explores post-pandemic trends, particularly emphasizing how technology continues to reshape and serve the educational landscape.</p> Aleksandra Syryt Copyright (c) 2023 Aleksandra Syryt 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 3 2 117 128 10.57599/gisoj.2023.3.2.117