GIS Odyssey Journal 2022-12-29T11:58:38+00:00 GIS Odyssey Journal Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>GIS Odyssey Journal</strong></em> <strong>ISSN 2720-2682</strong> (online), is an interdisciplinary, international, peer-reviewed and open access journal, published in the electronic version.</p> <p>Publication in the journal is <strong>free of charge</strong>.</p> <p>Articles are published in <strong>English only</strong>.</p> <p>It provides an advanced forum for geographic information science: Cartography, Geoinformatics Systems – Information Technology, Geoinformation and Law, Cultural and Natural Heritage Management, Globalization and Social-Economic Problems, The State and Local Level Administration &amp; Management, Ecology, Sea and Water Management, Environmental and Earth Resources Management, Spatial Information Systems in Practice, The New GIS Solutions, Agriculture and Forestry, The Integrated Europe and World – Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe, Emergency Management – Post-War and Post-Disaster Reconstruction Projects, Smart city.</p> <p>It is published since 2021 year as semi-annual by the SILGIS Association (Poland) and Croatian-Polish Scientific Network (CPSN). Previously since 2016 till 2020 published as Conference proceedings (GIS Odyssey) by GIS Forum (Croatia). From 1994 till 2015 achievements of international GIS conferences based on Croatian-Polish cooperation were published in the form of books. Publications 1994-2020 are presented on the website</p> <p><strong>Important for authors affiliated with Polish institutions:</strong><br />According to <a href="" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1640958519795000&amp;usg=AOvVaw1vHzWyX0nmL1KnzM0mR6es">the announcement by the Minister of Education and Science dated 17th July 2023</a> journal <em>GIS Odyssey Journal </em>was entered on the list of scientific journals and reviewed materials from international conferences and received 40 points. Assigned scientific disciplines: information and communication technology; forestry; agriculture and horticulture; social and economic geography and spatial management; law; Earth and related environmental sciences, civil engineering, geodesy and transport.</p> ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF JORGE CHAVEZ INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT IN LIMA-PERU 2022-11-04T12:43:28+00:00 Eliezer Jose Arellano Garcia <p>In the daily operation of an airport, there are a multitude of hazards that can compromise operational safety; therefore, it is critical to monitor and identify these hazards as well as the associated risks. This work's main objective was to assess the operational risks and hazards that may arise from construction works in the airport environment. For this study, it was taken as a reference the expansion work at Jorge Chávez International Airport in the city of Lima, Peru. This is a large-scale project, with the construction of a second runway, a new control tower, taxiways, parking aprons, etc. Among the main results obtained after finishing the risk assessment process, ten generic hazards were identified, from which thirty-seven potential risks were derived. However, most of them had a low probability of occurrence, so an "acceptable" tolerability prevailed. Among the recommendations presented (ATIS, NOTAM, visual signs, phraseology, signage, procedures, etc.), these are mainly focused on human factors and in phases 1 and 2 of the construction works, the critical phases where the current runway section is connected to the new taxiways giving access to the second runway.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eliezer Jose Arellano Garcia CYBERSECURITY OF SPATIAL INFORMATION 2022-11-04T15:47:29+00:00 Agnieszka Besiekierska Kamil Czaplicki <p>Services related to the broadly understood spatial information are subject to constant and intensive digitization. In addition to many positive sides, such as broad access to services, digitization also brings negative phenomena such as cyber attacks, which have intensified in recent years. Responsibilities in the area of ​​cybersecurity are subject to legal provisions, including the act on the national cybersecurity system. Unfortunately, these obligations are still not sufficiently fulfilled, which is reflected in the results of the Supreme Audit Office (NIK). Advice on safety measures can be found in the letter of the Surveyor General of Poland dated 24 February 2022. The measures indicated in the letter should be considered insufficient.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Agnieszka Besiekierska, Kamil Czaplicki SOIL LIMING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND REDUCING EUTROPHICATION OF SURFACE WATERS 2022-12-06T13:07:09+00:00 Paweł Nicia <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> soils along with their properties, climate and mineral fertilisation level are among the most important environmental elements impacting the quality and quantity of agricultural crops. Agricultural practices as well as crop varieties also have an impact on crop quantity and quality, but the method of cultivation of agricultural crops and selection of varieties depend on soil quality and local climate conditions.</p> <p>Assuming optimum distribution of annual precipitation and proper level of fertilisation, the quality and quantity of agricultural crops depend on the properties of the soils in which they are grown. One of the most important soil parameters is pH. Acidic soils result in a range of negative phenomena that, on the one hand, impact crop quality and quantity, while, on the other hand, place a burden on the natural environment. Most soils used for crop cultivation in Poland originated from noncarbonate rocks and, consequently, are acidic. In order for agricultural production to reach an appropriate level of economic efficiency, systematic deacidifying fertilisation should be applied. However, the level of deacidifying fertilisation in Poland is far too low relative to the requirements of most plants (including mainly cereal). The necessity of using deacidifying fertilisers in crop production is a known problem and has been described in both scientific and popular scientific literature. Nevertheless, current trends indicate that farmers still use deacidifying fertilisation to a small extend, despite the fact that it is a simple way to significantly increase the quality and quantity of agricultural crops while maintaining the same level of fertilisation by mineral fertilisers.&nbsp;</p> <p>The paper describes, based on the National Agricultural Census 2012-2022, the current level of soil fertilisation by deacidifying fertilisers in Poland and analyses the reasons for this level as well as potential consequences.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Paweł Nicia PROCESSING OF SPATIAL DATA ON THE EXAMPLE OF A WATER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM 2022-11-24T09:28:58+00:00 Małgorzata Ganczar <p>The Water Management Information System is an important instrument of water resource management that enables the collection, processing, publishing and sharing of water management data. The Water Management Information System is an integral part of proper and effective water management, the vision of which has been shaped over the last decades, transforming into an increasingly effective system adapted to the applicable legal and organizational conditions. The main feature of the information system is its multi-tier nature, providing access to other information resources, which will allow the utilization of data imported from other thematic databases. In this manner, on the basis of appropriate regulations, access to current data from various sources, a uniform reference system and proper use of water management data in planning and programming socio-economic development will be ensured. In the paper, WIMS will be characterized as a public register, taking into account the categories of data collected in the context of restricting access to data.</p> <p>The subject of the considerations will be the identification of important elements in the field of ensuring access to information on water management, as well as its dissemination through the WMIS.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Małgorzata Ganczar FUSING MULTIPLE OPEN-SOURCE REMOTE SENSING DATA TO ESTIMATE PM2.5 AND PM10MONTHLY CONCENTRATIONS IN CROATIA 2022-12-03T08:54:22+00:00 Luka Mamić Gordana Kaplan Mateo Gašparović <p>The objective of this study is to create a methodology for accurately estimating atmospheric concentrations of PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> using Sentinel-5P and other open-source remote sensing data from the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform on a monthly basis for June, July and August which are considered as months of non-heating season in Croatia, and December, January and February, which, on the other hand, are considered as months of the heating season. Furthermore, machine learning algorithms were employed in this study to build models that can accurately identify air quality. The proposed method uses open-source remote sensing data accessible on the GEE platform, with in-situ data from Croatian National Network for Continuous Air Quality Monitoring as ground truth data. A common thing for all developed monthly models is that the predicted values slightly underestimate the actual ones and appear slightly lower. However, all models have shown the general ability to estimate PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> levels, even in areas without high pollution. Furthermore, all models can effectively detect all PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10&nbsp; </sub>hotspots.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luka Mamić, Gordana Kaplan, Mateo Gašparović STATEMENT OF APPLICABILITY AS A KEY ELEMENT OF THE GIS CERTIFICATION PROCESS IN THE LIGHT OF CYBERSECURITY STANDARDS 2022-07-19T06:36:32+00:00 Jerzy Stanik Maciej Kiedrowicz <p>The Statement of Applicability (SoA) is a mandatory document ISMS that you need to develop, prepare, and submit with your ISO 27001, and it is crucial in obtaining your ISO 27001 Risk Assessment and ISMS certification. According to ISO/IEC 27001, Information Security Management System is a collection of ‘that part of the general management system, based on the approach to business risk, to establish, implement, operate, monitor, review, maintain and improve information security. ISO/IEC 27001 specifies the requirements and implementation process for the Information Security Management System. However, implementing this standard without a good SoA document may prove impossible. The article presents a system model for the construction of SoA for ISMS and its certification following the ISO 27001 standard. This model aims to provide instruments for designing and generating an SoA document in relation to ISMS, covering all information processes in GIS. This model allows organizations to evaluate their current state of GIS information asset security implementation according to the best practices defined in ISO/IEC 27001. The proprietary model proposed in this article is assessed from a multi-stage perspective, which confirms that the proposed draft Statement of Use document makes a valuable and innovative contribution to information security management by considering the best practices in this field.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jerzy Stanik, Maciej Kiedrowicz LEGAL FUTUROLOGY – POTENTIAL OF FORESIGHT RESEARCH IN LEGAL SCIENCES 2022-08-10T09:27:00+00:00 Artur Kotowski <p style="font-weight: 400;">Forecasting the future in relation to the science of law has not been seriously considered so far. It is not only because the fact that half a century ago futurology was treated as an issue of science fiction. Doubts were raised by the specificity of law as a social science and its susceptibility to cultural factors which are impossible to predict. It was also not very clear what legal futurology was supposed to concern itself with and how to define it. Is it about the area of law in force or about the way of practicing the science of law? The limitations of futurological reflection also result from the fact that the characteristics of the law in force determine the way of conducting jurisprudential research. The former, in turn, as already signaled, operate within a wide spectrum of uncertainty.&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The paper aims to answer the research question to what extent legal futurology, understood as a set of issues oriented towards the analysis of the future of law and legal science, can be cultivated as a sub-discipline within the structure of legal sciences.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Artur Kotowski AN IMPACT OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW REGULATION ON MODELS OF USING SPATIAL DATA TO PROMOTE TOURISM ASSETS OF POLAND AND ITS CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE 2022-12-16T12:45:33+00:00 Krzysztof Świtała <p>The purpose of the article is to analyze the impact of legal regulations on the use of spatial data related to Poland's tourism assets and its cultural and natural heritage through spatial information services used as part of spatial information systems, both in the public and private sectors. The conducted considerations are to allow for the formulation of de lege lata remarks and de lege ferenda postulates regarding the existing legal basis for the functioning of the spatial information infrastructure. The proposed solutions should have a positive impact on improving the efficiency of using the data collected in this infrastructure for purposes related to the promotion of Poland's cultural and natural heritage.</p> <p>It will also be important to analyze the relationship of legal instruments regulated by the Act of 4 March 2010 on spatial information infrastructure based on Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), in relation to normative solutions proposed in Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on open data and the re-use of public sector information. In this article, particular emphasis will be on identifying potential added values resulting from ensuring the interoperability of electronic services and data sets, as well as possible legal barriers related to the subject matter of ongoing research.</p> <p>An important element of the considerations will be the description of the registers established in the Act of July 23, 2003 on the protection of monuments and the care of monuments and the Act of April 16, 2004 on the protection of nature. In this field, it is also important to assess the possibilities of their further improvement using information and communication technologies, open spatial data formats and GIS tools.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Krzysztof Świtała DIVERGENCE BETWEEN AUTHORITIES ON PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SPATIAL DATA IN POLAND 2022-12-16T10:34:01+00:00 Pawel Hajduk <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article aims to outline the divergence between authorities on publicly available spatial data, using the example of a dispute between the Polish Data Protection Authority and the Surveyor General of Poland concerning the publication of the numbers of land and mortgage register on the Polish spatial information website Geoportal. The issues of whether the number of the land and mortgage register is personal data and grounds for processing land register numbers from the DPA’s and Surveyor General’s legal perspectives are analyzed. Then, the reasons behind this conflict and, more broadly, the reasons behind disputes between authorities are examined. It is hypothesized that the main reason for this dispute is that the different aims drive different authorities empowered in the regulation of processing publicly available data.</span></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pawel Hajduk THE ROLE OF CODES OF CONDUCT IN THE EU DATA PROTECTION FRAMEWORK 2022-12-08T21:09:59+00:00 Piotr Drobek <p>The paper presents the legal nature and functions of codes of conduct in EU data protection law. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) contains much more extensive provisions on codes of conduct than previous Directive 95/46/EC, giving them a potentially much more significant role in the EU data protection regime. The GDPR specifies codes of conduct as co-regulatory instruments whose compliance by controllers and processors has significant legal consequences. They are primarily intended to facilitate compliance with the GDPR by controllers and processors from a specific sector or to perform similar processing operations. It is therefore essential to identify the legal nature of the codes of conduct, the legal consequences of adhering to them, and their function in the EU data protection model. The theoretical analysis of EU data protection codes of conduct considers the perspectives of legal and regulatory theory.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Piotr Drobek WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN IMPLEMENTING REMOTE CONTROL TOWERS? COLOMBIA CASE STUDY 2022-11-22T18:25:38+00:00 Rubén Pérez Fernández <p>The aim of this article is to assist anyone considering implementing these systems. Along the document the main differences between conventional and remote control are stated, with the intention to clarify what advantages they can bring, the changes involved when adopting remote towers, and a brief outline of a transition plan for adopting these systems. Subsequently, the benefits to a country’s air navigation from utilizing these systems is discussed by studying the case of Colombia, a country with a unique orography. In addition, the specific characteristics of the airports are analysed to propose the candidates which may have the best outcome if remote tower systems are implemented.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rubén Pérez Fernández STUDY OF THE LOCATION OF A HELIPORT IN CATALONIA 2022-11-22T18:26:22+00:00 Cesar Montañés Alonso <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">The helicopter serves a vital purpose. In current society, their duty is to support or enable social and economic progress. Helicopters are currently used in a wider range of situations as a result of ongoing technological and functional advancements. Helicopters are becoming increasingly popular in our culture, particularly in the fields of public service and aerial labor.</span></p> <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">There are two trends regarding the Catalan heliport network that aim to modernize and address the needs of the different Catalan airport networks, which are the deployment of a 24-hour network and the modernization of facilities, and the modernization and renewal of the fleet of helicopters based in Catalonia.</span></p> <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">The most important consideration is the requirement for heliports for public health, fire, security, emergency, and civil protection services. This requirement for a Catalan heliport network will be established, and it will be a problem to address because it is one of the work's objectives: the specification of the heliport to be located and the study of the heliport's location.</span></p> <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">After the sort of heliport to be installed on the site has been selected, the indications and guidelines for the promotion of new heliports are examined. This guarantees that the qualities to be taken into account for site analysis are known.</span></p> <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">Throughout the enterprise's site selection process, ArcMap 10.8 geographic information system (GIS) technologies are employed. All of the layers of information used, the layers of analysis, and the multiple approaches used are all described. This section of the investigation closes with an examination of three potential communities for a new heliport.</span></p> <p class="GaEENormal" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: 'Cambria',serif;" lang="EN-US">It closes with the conclusions section, which details the findings from the analysis of the Catalan heliport network and the study of heliport site in Catalonia.</span></p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Cesar Montañés